UNITED REPUBLIC OF KIVU

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE TRADITIONAL AUTHORITIES

The Colonial Government relied on Traditional Authorities as a link to the general population. The Traditional Authorities were first undermined by the Mobutu regime. But given the close relationship between Traditional Leaders and their constituencies, their position was reinforced through co-optation during the later years of the second republic.

Administratively, most Tribes are organized around collectivities, with each collectively being based on a specific lineage. Collectivities in turn are divided into groupements and villages. Many collectivities are mono-ethnic but often Tribes have blood ties with neighbouring collectivities. The Tribes’ traditional boundaries became the basis for the modern administrative boundaries.

The collectivity, as well as any lower administrative level, is headed by a Chief, or Mwami (plural Bwami) who are also part of the modern-day administration. The same Tribe can have several Bwami at the same Traditional Level. However, their ranks are differentiated by the modern administration (collectivity, groupement or village).

The dual function of Traditional Leaders does not come without friction. On the one hand, the exigencies of traditional and modern administration may be contradictory, in which case any problem will have to be resolved by the governor. On the other hand, Traditional Leaders are not always experienced for either administration or development. Furthermore, though they collect taxes for the collectivity and report monthly to higher authorities, they have no budget at lower levels; hence in part still rely on Traditional forms of tribute.

Historically, the major responsibility of the Mwami centered around the allocation of land among members of his Tribe. With less land available for distribution and increasing land density, the powers of the Traditional Chiefs have been slowly decreasing. For the Tribal members, therefore, the Mwami’s major role today is to conserve customs and Traditions. The Bwami retain spiritual influence over their constituencies and continue to play a crucial role in mobilizing the people, as they had done in pre-colonial and colonial times. In particular, they can mobilize local labour for works of community interest, such as the construction of a road. In this sense, “the Mwami is the motor of the Tribe.”

The Bwami also have responsibility over lower courts to deal with local disputes about, for instance, land use (in particular between agriculturists and pastoralists), divorce, bride price and rape. In this function, the Bwami are assisted by local judges who are selected by the Chief according to competence. However, the next higher Mwami has to confirm this selection. Regarding modern administration, the Mwami is responsible for such matters as safeguarding the environment, agricultural production, customary affairs, and population census and registration.

Each tribe has its council of elders to assist the Mwami in managing local affairs. Council members normally comprise the Bwami of lower administrative layers (groupements or villages) but may also include other competent men (and, in principle, women). The Traditional Councils hold regular meetings and have been responsible for non-formal/traditional jurisdiction. A recurrent element in Traditional Administration is decision-making by negotiation and deliberation.

The Traditional Authorities have frequently kept an informal influence over their Tribes, and openness of the Traditional Leaders in many ways determines the level of popular participation. As a result, many young Chiefs attempt to bring the customary system more in line with the modern system, responding in a sense to the exigencies of development, to “a change in life style”.

The relationship between Modern and Traditional Authority in the United Republic of Kivu is one of partnership, for the common good of the Nation of United Kivu.

Traditional Leaders are expected in participating in the national political dialogue, and assume their responsibilities in the construction the Nation, and follow, clear rules about the state-citizen interface.

The Article 86? of the Constitution of the United Republic of Kivu states that:

"The Traditional Native Authority is recognized by the Constitution of the United Republic of Kivu; according to local Customs provided they do not oppose the Constitution of the Union, its Laws, the Public Order, the Human Rights charter and the Fundamental Freedoms. Any Native Traditional Chief it’s invited to participate in the good administration of the Nation and is invited to take seat in Baraza Kuu la Watambo wa Muungano wa Kivu (The Great Council of Noble Chiefs of the United Kivu)."

The Baraza Kuu la Watambo wa Muungano wa Kivu is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Republic of Kivu and is also commonly referred to as "Baraza Kuu". The President, the Baraza la Wabunge and the Baraza Kuu together comprise the Parliament of Kivu. The Seats in the Baraza kuu are one per the Traditional Native Chiefdom Chief, to which number is allocated 12 extra seats which are given to United Kivu citizens who have shown and contributed significantly to the Untied Republic of Kivu.

The full, formal style of the Baraza Kuu is The Right Honourable the Watambo Spiritual and Temporal of the United Republic of Kivu in Parliament assembled. The formal style of individual members of the Baraza Kuu is The Right Honourable the Watambo X of Y. Watambo who are Washauri wa Kipekee (Privy Counsellors) place "WK" after their title: all Privy Counsellors are in any case entitled to the epithet The Right Honourable.

Belgian colonial officials and postcolonial leaders tried to integrate the Traditional Authority Chiefs in their political and administrative institutions. The Belgians sought the collaboration of local Chiefs only to establish better control on the colonized people. As they moved toward achieving this goal they gradually got rid of them leaving that legacy to the postcolonial leaders. The latter continued with the same manipulative hypocrisy of recognizing the place and roles of the Traditional Authority only when they faced political crises.

The Constitution of the United Republic of Kivu recognizes in its article 86 the importance of the Traditional Authority of the local Chiefs and has states a clear vision on the Traditional Authority in the netting of the tissue of national unity. After over a century of Belgium and Congolese Rule shilly-shallying, deliberate neglect and misjudging the value of Customs, Traditions and History of the Native Populations of United Kivu.

The United Republic of Kivu expects that all and every Traditional Authority Chief positively contributes to the building of a stable and Constitutionally Democratic Nation-State, and invites all Traditional Authority Chiefs to be integrated in the new Political and Administrative Institutions of the United Republic of Kivu.”

The Ethnic and Native Tribes
of the United Republic of Kivu

- Aluba: Chiefdom in the Kobombo, District of Maniema.

- Ankutshu: Chiefdom in the Kobombo, District of Maniema.

- Bafulero: Chiefdom in the Uvira District, South Kivu, named after the Bafulero Tribe. The Capital is Lemera. Also spelled Bafuliro and Bafuliiru.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Bafulero (Nyofu Bukavu, South Kivu, United Republic of Kivu)
Head of the Family: Ndare Simba, Mwami of Bafulero since 1996, Pres of the Coll of the Bami of South Kivu

PREDECESSORS:
....
Mwami Kalingishi ...- deposed 1928, a Tutsi, deposed by Belgium
Mwami Ndabagoyi Simba 1928 - deposed 21-2-1961 and 1965-1967, a Hutu, +1967
Mwami Simba Namugira 1961- (deposed by Mobutu) 1965
Mwami Marandura 1965-1967
Mwami Muhamba 1967?-1979?, a Tutsi. Son of Mwami Kalingishi
Mwami Albert Mukogabwe c1980-1996. Son of Mwami Simba Namugira
Ndare Simba, Mwami of Bafulero since 1996 (see above, Head of the Family)

- Bahina: Chiefdom in the Kailo District, Maniema.

- Bakano: Chiefdom in the Walikale District, North Kivu. The Tribes are the Bakano, the Bakusu and the Batembo.

- Masisi: A Hunde Banyungu, created as a central Hunde state in 1910 by the Belgians over 25,517 km², then Banyarwanda then possibly Hunde again Chiefdom in the Masisi District of North Kivu. Mwami André Kalinda I, sold his indigenous rights on 13-11-1939 for 35,000 francs, which resulted in the immigration of Banyarwanda workers who represent today 85 to 90% of the population. In 1954, Walikale split with an area of 23,475 km², reducing the superficy of Masisi to 4,400 km². Capital is Masisi.

GLOSSARY

Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Masisi or Mwami of the Bahunde Banyungu (Masisi, North Kivu, United Republic of Kivu)
Head of the Family: Albert Kalinda II, Mwami of Masisi since 1972

PREDECESSORS

André Kalinda I, Mwami of Masisi or Mwami of the Bahunde Banyungu 1910-1972, a Bahunde. Father of:
Albert Kalinda II, Mwami of Masisi since 1972 (see above, Head of the Family)

- Bakongola: Chiefdom in the Kibombo District, Maniema.

- Balanga: Chiefdom in the Kailo District, Maniema.

- Bangengele: Chiefdom in the Kailo District, Maniema.

- Baombo: Chiefdom in the Kailo District, Maniema.

- Bapere: Chiefdom in the Lubero District, North Kivu. The Tribes are the Banande, the Bapere and the Balese.

- Batalinga: Chiefdom in the Beni, District of North Kivu. The Tribes are the Bataling and the Bambuba. The Capital is Mutwanga.

- Benya Samba: Chiefdom in the Kasongo, District of Maniema.

- Osso: Chiefdom in the Masisi District, North Kivu. The Tribes are the Bahunde and the Batembo.

- Bwito: A 1,470 km² Chiefdom in the Rutshuru District, North Kivu invested by Hunde people from Uganda by the end of the 19th century. The Chiefdom of Bwito was reattached administratively to the then Banyarwanda Chiefdom of Bwisha in 1927 until 1960. Then the Tutsi came since 1950/1960 from Rugari in Burundi, as the Hunde left c1940. In 1960 the Banande migrated from Beni & Luber Districts, in 1994/96 Hutu refugees came from Rwanda. The Capital is Birambizo.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Bwito (Birambizo, North Kivu, United Republic of Kivu).

PREDECESSORS:
....
Mwami Bukavu c1920, a Hunde, arrested and jailed Costermansville (today Bukavu) 1927?, + Costermansville (today Bukavu)

Administration by the Mwami of Bwisha 1927-1960
Mwami .... 1961-...., +.... Son of Mwami Bukavu
Buunda, Regent
Mwami .... ....-deposed 1975, a Hutu
Mwami .... since 1975, a Hunde

- Ijwi: An island on the Kivu Lake in South Kivu. Annexed by Rwanda at the end of the 19th century and ceded by the Germans to Congo in 1910. The Belgians made Ijwi a vassal of Buhavu in 1921, a cause of instability until 1940. The Capital is Rambo. Also spelled Idjwi and named South Ijwi, to make the distinction with North Ijwi or Rubenga, as Ijwi was split in 1943 by the Belgians between South Ijwi (known also as Ijwi) and Rubenga (known as North Ijwi).

DYNASTY: Sibula

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Ijwi
Head of the Family: Roger Ntambuka Balekage Mihigo II, Mwami of Ijwi, in exile

MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY

Sons of Mwami Mwendanga:
1 Mwami Kabego (see below, Predecessors)
2 Balikage, Sultani of Rubenga (or North Ijwi)

PREDECESSORS:
....
Mwami Mwendanga, +c1870. Son of Kabwika (heir and oldest son of Bihako Bamanyirwe, Mwami of Buhavu) and father of:
Mwami Kabego c1870-...., +c1889. Father of:
Mwami Mihigo I Ndogosa c1878-deposed 1889, restored 1896-deposed ...., exiled, +1928
Mwami Ntambuka Barhahakana 1928-1943 and restored 1960-72?. Half brother of:
Chief Muhamiriza 1943-1960, °c1889
Mwami Mihigo I, +c1998
Roger Ntambuka Balekage Mihigo II, Mwami of Ijwi (see above, Head of the Family)

- Itombwe: Chiefdom in the Mwenga District, South Kivu. The tribes are the Babembe and the Barega.

- Katoy: Chiefdom in the Masisi District, North Kivu. The Tribes are the Bahunde and the Batembo.

- Matapa: Chiefdom in the Kibombo District, Maniema.

- Ngweshe: A state in the Walungu District, South Kivu, on the Kivu lake, the junior line of the Bashi dynasty who pushed the senior line of Kabare north to the present territory of Kabare. Also named Bushi.

GLOSSARY

Baluzi: Princes
Bami: plural of Mwami
Bashi: the people of Bushi
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Ngweshe
Head of the Family: Ngweshe XV Weza III Pierre J.M.J. Ndatabaye Muhigirwa, Mwami of Ngweshe since before 1979, Senator, jailed in Kinshasa c2/1998, went into exile

PREDECESSORS:

Mwami Mubondwe (NaBushi na Mubondwe). Father of:
Mwami Muka Mubondwe (NaBuushi na Muka Mubondwe)
Mwami Kagweshe c1600
Mwami Muhive
Mwami Kaserere c1700
Mwami Weza I after 1700-before 1800
Mwami Bichinga
Mwami Cirhahongerwa c1780
Mwami Chirimwentale c1800
Mwami Kwibuka
Mwami Rugenge Lushamba
Mwami Ngweshe XI Lirangwe c1890-1892, +1892
Mwami Ngweshe XII Ruhongeka 1892-1922, +1922
Mwami Ngweshe XIII Mafundwe Rugema 1922-abdicated 1936
Mwami Ngweshe XIV Muhigirwa 1936-.... Father of:
Ngweshe XV Weza III Pierre J.M.J. Ndatabaye Muhigirwa, Mwami of Ngweshe since before 1979 (see above, Head of the Family)

- Walikale: A chiefdom in the Walikale District of the North Kivu. Part of the Chiefdom is probably in Maniema. Created in 1954 with an area of 23,475 km², split from Masisi.

- Wanyanga: Chiefdom in the Walikale District of the North Kivu. The tribe is also named Wanyanga.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Wanyanga
Head of the Family: Bashali N'siyi M. Roger, Mwami of Wanyanga since 1995

PREDECESSORS:
....
Ngulu Maneno Buhini III, Mwami of Wanyanga....-1995, +(killed) 25/2/1995
Bashali N'siyi M. Roger, Mwami of Wanyanga since 1995

- Washali Bufuna: A Chiefdom in North Kivu.

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Chief of Washali Bufuna.


 

HUNDE CHIEFDOMS

- Bashali: A Hunde Chiefdom in the Masisi District, North Kivu.

GLOSSARY

Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Bashali or The Mwami of the Bahunde Bashali.

PREDECESSORS:
....
Bashali N'Siyi M. Roger, Mwami of Bashali or The Mwami of the Bahunde Bashali since 1995.

- Bwisha: A Hunde then Banyarwanda then possibly Hunde again Chiefdom in the Rutshuru District of the North Kivu. The Chiefdom was formed by the reunion of 4 Banyarwanda chiefdoms: Jomba, Gisigari, Busanza and Rugari. In 1927, the Chiefdom was enlarged administratively by the Hunde Chiefdom of Bwito. 90% of the population today is Banyarwanda. The Capital is Rutshuru (formerly Ruchuru). From 1912 until 1920, named Binja. Also spelled Buisha.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

PREDECESSORS:

Bikamiro ....- deposed 1920 by the Belgians, a Hunde

Mwami Daniel Ndeze I 1918 or 1920- deposed 1960, restored 1965-1980, a Hutu, exiled in Belgium 1960, +4/1980
Ndeze II Paul, Mwami of Bwisha 1960?-1965?, 1980-still alive 2002
Bikamiro Kadongo. Grandson of Bikamiro


 

BAREGA CHIEFDOMS

- Shabunda: A Barega Chiefdom in the Shabunda District, South Kivu. The Chiefdom represents 25,412 km² and a population of 400,000. Also named Bakisi.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Shabunda (Shabunda, South Kivu, United Republic of Kivu)
Head of the Family: Augustin Mopipi Mukulumanya, Mwami of Shabunda c1997

- Basile: A Barega Chiefdom in the Mwenga District, South Kivu.

- Wamuzimu: A Barega chiefdom in the Mwenga District of of South Kivu.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Wamuzimu
Head of the Family: Longangi Ali-Byemba, Mwami of Wamuzimu c1999


NANDE CHIEFDOMS

- Bamate: A Nande Chiefdom in the Lubero District, North Kivu.

- Bashu: A Nande Chiefdom in the Beni District, North Kivu. Capital is Beni.

- Baswagha: A Nande Chiefdom in the Lubero District, North Kivu.

- Batangi: A Nande Chiefdom in the Lubero, District, North Kivu.

- Ruwenzori: A Nande Chiefdom in the Beni District, North Kivu. Capital is Oïcha.



BAFULERO CHIEFDOMS

- Ruzizi: A Bafulero Chiefdom in the Uvira District, South Kivu.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Ruzizi.
Head of the Family: Ntabagoye Nsabimana, Mwami of Ruzizi since 1998, installed 1998

PREDECESSORS:
....
...., Mwami of Ruzizi ....- deposed 1994, a Tutsi
Shweba Mutabazi II, Mwami of Ruzizi 1994-1998, a Hutu
Ntabagoye Nsabimana, Mwami of Ruzizi since 1998 (see above, Head of the Family).


 

BAHAVU CHIEFDOMS

- Buhavu: A Bahavu Chiefdom in the Kalehe District, South Kivu on the Kivu Lake.

DYNASTY: Sibula

GLOSSARY

Bahavu: the people of Buhavu
Bajinji: councillors of the Mwami
Bami: plural of Mwami
Buhavu: the country of Buhavu
Bwami: Kingdom
Kihavu: the language of Buhavu
Muhavu: a person of Buhavu
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Buhavu
Head of the Family: Ntale IV Kamirogosa, Mwami of Buhavu

MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY:

Son of Mwami Bihako Bamanyirwe:
1 (heir and oldest son) Kabwika. Father of:
1.1 Mwendanga, Mwami of Ijwi

PREDECESSORS:

The stories of Mwami Nsibula I ya Nyibunga.

BaShi stories neither Bunyabungo (Havu) stories Ndahiro II Cyamatare does not appear to live in the same period with Mwami Nsibula I ya Nyibunga.

The mother of Nsibula I ya Nyibunga is called Nyibunga wa Kamome and she is the daughter of the King of the Bushi Nnabushi Kamome. At the time Bushi was one and the capital was in Kabare in Cirunga. She was kidnapped at the time of the invasion in Bushi by the Mwami of the Rwanda Nsoro 1st Samukondo. She will be remit later to his father Kamome by the Rwanda King Nsoro himself. His father sent him to live with his brother Chifundangombe. He got pregnant from his brother. Ashamed and to avoid this of scandal of Baluzi, his father, Kamome the King of Bushi married her to the king of Bunyabungo (Buhavu) Lukara Rwa Nsibula the son of Mbeba eri Manza. Then latter, Rukara will be the adopted father of the child that will have been born of Nyibunga and took his name of Nsibula, whom later become Nsibula I ya Nyibunga.

Mwami Nsibula I ya Nyibunga.
Mwami Mbera eri Maza Nsibula II ya Niebutatire
Mwami Bihako Bamanyirwe
Mwami Lukara Kamarogosa I c1800
Mwami Ntale I
Mwami Nsibula III Kihunga
Mwami Mpaka
Mwami Nsibula Bahole
Mwami Ntale II Basumbire
Mwami Lushombo (or Rushombo, maybe Ntale III?) c1900-c1927
Mwami Bahole Sangara c1928-....
Mwami Kamirogosa II Andre. Father of:
Ntale IV Kamirogosa, Mwami of Buhavu (see above, Head of the Family)

- Rubenga: A Bahavu Chiefdom in the north of the Idjwi District, South Kivu. Also named North Ijwi to make the distinction with South Ijwi (known also as Ijwi), as Ijwi was split in 1943 by the Belgians between South Ijwi (known also as Ijwi) and Rubenga (known as North Ijwi).

GLOSSARY

Bahavu: the people of Buhavu
Bami: plural of Mwami
Buhavu: the country of Buhavu
Bwami: Kingdom
Kihavu: the language of Buhavu
Muhavu: a person of Buhavu
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami or Sultani of Rubenga (North Idjwi, South kivu, United Republic of Kivu)
Head of the Family: Rubenga Ntawenderundi, Mwami or Sultani of Rubenga c1998

PREDECESSORS:

? Mwami Bera 1943

Sultani Balikage. Son of Mwendanga, Mwami of Ijwi (or South Ijwi) and father of:
Sultani Tabaro, + (executed)
Rubenga Ntawenderundi, Mwami or Sultani of Rubenga c1998


BATEMBO CHIEFDOMS

- Buloho: A Batembo Chiefdom in the Kalehe District, South Kivu Province. The Capital is Bunyakiri.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Buloho (Bunyakiri, South Kivu, United Republic of Kivu)

PREDECESSORS:
....
Mwami Kitenge ruled 1997-c2001
Musikami Ngalamira Jean Claude, Mwami of Buloho since c2001 (see above, Head of the Family)

- Bunyakiri: A Batembo Chiefdom, Chiefdom in Kivu.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Bunyakiri
Head of the Family: Musikami Ngalamira Jean-Claude, Mwami of Bunyakiri


BASHI CHIEFDOMS

- Burinyi: A Bashi Chiefdom in the Mwenga District, South Kivu. Part of Burinyi split to form the Chiefdom of Kabare. Also spelled Burhinyi.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Burinyi (Bunyakiri, South Kivu, United Republic of Kivu)
Head of the Family: Muganga Basengezi, Mwami of Burinyi c1997

- Kalonge: A Bashi Chiefdom in the Kalehe District, South Kivu Province.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Kalonge
Head of the Family: Nakalonge Mpagama II, Mwami of Kalonge c1997, jailed in Kinshasa c2/1998

- Kaziba: A Bashi Chiefdom in the Walungu District of the Province of South Kivu. Formerly a part of Bafulero.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Kaziba
Head of the Family: Chimanye II Kabonwa Nnakaziba, Mwami of Kaziba on or before 1988, went into exile.

- Luhwindja: A Bashi Chiefdom in the Mwenga District of South Kivu.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Luhwindja (Mwenga, South Kivu, United Republic of Kivu)

PREDECESSORS:
....
Philemon Mukuba Naluhwindja, Mwami of Luhwindja 1988-2001, +(killed) 2001

- Nindja: A Bashi Chiefdom in the Kabare District, South Kivu.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Nindja
Head of the Family: Nanindja Balekembaka, Mwami of Nindja since 1989, in exile

PREDECESSORS:
....
Mwami Bertin Ndusi Ruhambuzo ....- deposed c1979, still alive 1998
Interregnum 1979-1989
Nanindja Balekembaka, Mwami of Nindja since 1989 (see above, Head of the Family)

- Kabare: A Bashi Chiefdom in the Kabare District, South Kivu Province, the senior line of the Bashi dynasty pushed north to the present territory by the Bashi junior line of Ngweshe. The chiefdom split from Burinyi. The Capital is Chirunga.

DYNASTY: Mwoca

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Murhambo: provincial Chief
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Kabare (Kabare, South Kivu, United Republic of Kivu)
Head of the Family: Désiré Kabare Rugemanizi II, Mwami of Kabare since 1990, jailed in Kinshasa c2/1998, in exile

PREDECESSORS:

Mwami Nabushi Kabare Ngabwe (the 1st King, according to the tradition)
....
Mwami Nabushi Kakome c1388
....
Mwami Nabushi Chilembebwa
Mwami Nabushi Nshuliludjo c1657
....
Mwami Nabushi Birhenjira 1760-1799. Father of:
Mwami Nabushi Buhongera 1799-c1809
Mwami Nabushi Makombe c1809-1859, +1859. Father of:
Mwami Nabushi Byaterana 1859-1889
Mwami Kazi (Queen Mother) Mugenyi, Regent 1889-1892
Mwami Kabare Rutaganda (Rutayande) 1889-1919, +1919
Mwami Alexander Kabare Nabushi Rugema 1919 - resigned 1936
Mwami Albert Kabare Ntayitunda I 1936-1979, +1979
Mwami Alexandre Kabare Rugemanizi I 1979, +1979
Mwami Kazi (Queen Mother) ...., Regent 1979-1990, during disputed succession
Mwami Mamimami 1981- deposed 1986, in dispute
Mwami Albert Kabare Ntayitunda II 1986-1990, in dispute
Désiré Kabare Rugemanizi II, Mwami of Kabare since 1990 (see above, Head of the Family)
Benedicte M'Muhigirwa, administrator since c2/1998
1979-1990 Disputed succession: Regent Mwami-Kazi ....
1990- Mwami Desire Kabare RUGEMANIZI II


BANYINDU CHIEFDOMS

- Lwindi: A Banyindu Chiefdom in the Mwenga District, South Kivu. Also spelled Luindi.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Lwindi
Head of the Family: Pierre Milenge Sholo Nalubasa Nalwindi, Mwami of Lwindi since 2000

PREDECESSORS:
....
Mwami Rukandamiza before 1998
François Mubeza III Nalwindi, Mwami of Lwindi .... 24-8-1998, +(killed) Kasika 24-8-1998, X Yvette Nyange (Nyanghe) Yaya Mukulamanya, +(killed) Kasika 15 or 24-8-1998
Bugoma Mubeza IV Nalwindi, Mwami of Lwindi 1998-25-4-2000, + (assassinated) 28-4-2000
Pierre Milenge Sholo Nalubasa Nalwindi, Mwami of Lwindi since 2000 (see above, Head of the Family)


BABEMBE CHIEFDOMS

- Lulenge: A Babembe Chiefdom in the Fizi District of the South Kivu Province. Also spelled Lulenga.

GLOSSARY

Bami: plural of Mwami
Bwami: Kingdom
Mwami: King
Mwami Kazi: Queen Mother

QUALIFICATIONS AND TITLES

Head of the Family: The Mwami of Lulenge (Lulenge, South Kivu, United Republic of Kivu)
Head of the Family: Kilenga Mutabili II, Mwami of Lulenge c2000

- Mutambala: A Babembe Chiefdom in the Fizi District of the South Kivu.

Babuye, Bahamba, Bahavu, Bahunde, Bakondjo, Bakusu, Bambuba, Bango Bango, Baniabungo, Bapere, Batetela, Wabembe, Wabwari, Wafulero, Wagenia, Wagoma, Wanianga, Warega, Wasongola, Wazimba, Basua, Batwa


RECENT CHRONOLOGY OF THE KIVU HISTORY

1 Oct 1933 Kivu and Maniema, were organized as the province of Costermansville / Costermansstad created in Belgian Congo.
1947 Renamed Kivu.

1 July 1960 Autonomous province of the Congo Republic.

10 May 1962 Administration taken over by the central government and creation of the separate provinces of Maniema and North Kivu.

28 Dec 1966 Province reunited.

1988 Divided into Maniema, Nord-Kivu, and Sud-Kivu.

Commissioners

1933 - 1935 Marie Georges Nortehan
1935 - 1941 Joseph Noirot

Governors

1941 - 1945 Joseph Noirot
19.. - 19.. Maurice Willaert (b. 1910 - d. 2003)
1955? Brasseur
19.. - 1960 ....

Presidents

11 Jun 1960 - 24 Dec 1960 Jean Miruho (1st time)
26 Jun 1960 - Jul 1960 Clément Walubali (president of the secessionist province of Maniema)
2 Jan 1961 - 24 Feb 1961 Anicet Kashamura (b. 1928)
1961 - 19.. Antoine Omari (president of the secessionist province of Maniema, sponsored by the Republic of Katanga)
24 Feb 1961 - 11 Aug 1961 Taris Adrien Omari (b. 1916)
18 Sep 1961 - 10 May 1962 Jean Miruho (2nd time)

Governors (1972-80, commissioners)

3 Jan 1967 - 19.. Léon Engulu
19.. - 1980 ....
1980 - 1986 Mwando Simba
1986 - 198. Kilolo Musanga

Maniema

14 Aug 1962 Creation of the Maniema province.
25 Apr 1966 United with Central Kivu to form Sud-Kivu.
1988 Maniema province recreated.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)

12 Sep 1962 - 1962 Ignace Kanga
5 Nov 1962 - 19 Sep 1963 Hilaire Kisanga
19 Sep 1963 - 22 Jun 1964 ....
22 Jun 1964 - 21 Jul 1964 Joseph Tshomba-Fariala (1st time)
24 Jul 1964 - 5 Oct 1964 Charles Malembe (b. 1933) (governed the territories of the old Kivu province occupied by the forces of the People's Republic)
1964 - Jan 1966 Joseph Tshomba-Fariala (2nd time)
24 Jan 1966 - 25 Apr 1966 Pascal Luanghy (b. 1917)
1988 - 19.. Tshala Mwana
19.. - 19.. Joseph Bendera
19.. - 19.. Kyembwa wa Lumona
1996 - Feb 1997 Omari Lea Sisi
Mar 1997 - Jun 1997 Lokombe Kitete
Jun 1997 - 3 Oct 1998 Ramazani Shadari (1st time)
Dec 1998 - 12 Apr 2000 Nestor Kiyimbi Mutangi
(in rebellion)
12 Apr 2000 - 2003 Gertrude Kitembo (f) (b. 1958) RCD/Goma
(in rebellion)
May 2002? Ramazani Shadari (2nd time)
2003 - 26 May 2004 Falay Selenge
26 May 2004 - 16 Mar 2007 Koloso Sumaili
16 Mar 2007 - Didier Manara Linga (b. 1964?)

North Kivu

14 Aug 1962 Creation of the province of Nord-Kivu.
28 Dec 1966 Part of restored Kivu province.

1988 Nord-Kivu province recreated.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)

11 Sep 1962 - 6 Jul 1965 Benezeth Moley (b. 1927)
6 Jul 1965 - 28 Dec 1966 Denis Paluku
19.. - 1991 Basembe Emina
1991 - Aug 1993 Kalumbo Mbogho
Aug 1993 - Nov 1996 Moto Mupenda (interim)
Oct 1996 - 31 Jul 2000 Léonard Kanyamuhanga (d. 2000)
(in rebellion to 1997 and from Aug 1998)
23 Sep 1999 - .... Kaisazira Mbaki (in rebellion)
31 Jul 2000 - 24 Feb 2007 Eugène Serufuli Ngayabaseka (b. 1962)
(in rebellion to 16 May 2004)
24 Feb 2007 - Julien Paluku Kahongya (b. 1968?)

Kivu Central

18 May 1963 Creation of the province of Kivu Central out of the remaining parts of Kivu province.
25 Apr 1966 United with Maniema to form Sud-Kivu.

Presidents (from 1965, governors)

16 Jul 1963 - Jul 1964 Simon Malago
Aug 1964 - 25 Apr 1966 Dieudonné Boji

South Kivu

25 Apr 1966 Formed by the union of Kivu Central and Maniema.
28 Dec 1966 Part of restored Kivu province.
1988 Sud-Kivu province recreated.

Governor

25 Apr 1966 - 28 Dec 1966 Dieudonné Boji
1988 - 1990 Ndala Kasala
1990 - Nov 1991 Dilingi Liwoke La Milengo
1992 - 1997 Kyembwa wa Lumona
Jun 1997 - Oct 1998 Jean-Charles Magabe (d. 1999)
Oct 1998 - 10 Jun 2002 Norbert Basengezi Katintima
(in rebellion)
May 2002? Musamba Mondero
10 Jun 2002 - 26 Jan 2003 Patient Mwendanga
(in rebellion)
26 Jan 2003 - 26 May 2004 Xavier Ciribanya Cirimwami
(suspended from 9 Feb 2004)
(in rebellion)

Oct 2003? Fumi Tambwe
7 Feb 2004 - 26 May 2004 Jean-Pierre Mazambi
(acting for suspended Cirimwami)
26 May 2004 - 10 Nov 2005 Augustin Bulaimu
(suspended from 25 Apr 2005)
25 Apr 2005 - 10 Nov 2005 Alimasi Ndomba Pauni (interim)
10 Nov 2005 - 24 Feb 2007 Bu Amba Amba Déogracias
24 Feb 2007 - Célestin Cibalonza Byaterana (b. 1964?)


Concerning the Tutsi in Kivu

There were no Tutsi nominated by Belgium as a King in Kivu. The only Rwandan people that had been nominated as King by Belgium in Kivu was a Hutu named Ndezi. The Tutsi only came to Kivu recently in 1959, 1961, 1968 and 1973.



Images of United Kivu I Images of United Kivu II Images of United Kivu III
CONSTITUTION United Republic of Kivu
United Kivu Political Status KIVU PALM OIL KIVU MINING
Letter to those Foreign Forces that are oppressing us KIVU NATIONAL BANK  Kivu Methane Gas Extraction
Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 to Divide Africa  Massacre of Kivu Population in the
South Kivu 26 and 27 May 2007
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